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Water Informatioan Resources

Aquasphere® water was professionally tested by National Laboratory Testing Laboratory, Ltd. (NTL) to ensure its safety. Click on the links below to view the test results: 


The availability and safety of drinking water have become global problems. The United States joins countless other areas of the world facing this dilemma. Current attempts to alleviate these crises have created a $4.1 billion bottled water market in the United States, a $60 billion point-of-use water treatment industry and, wherever practical, incredibly expensive desalination plants with huge infrastructures and severe geographical restrictions.

All of these methods require traditional sources of water and each has inherent weaknesses and disadvantages. Even existing controlled and monitored municipal water filtration systems experience repeated shortages and contamination problems. In the United States for example, 85% of the municipal water systems are currently on United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) waivers for various reasons. Additionally, it is a guarded fact within the drinking water industry that chlorinated water reacts with organic matter found naturally within it to produce carcinogens, (cancer-producing agents.) In spite of this, there exists a worldwide need for new sources of drinking water.

Water Contamination 

There are many sources of chemical contamination: waste dumps, toxic and otherwise leaking gas, chemical tanks, industry pesticides, insecticides, agricultural runoff, fertilizers, chemical spills, transportation accidents, sewage and septic field discharge, cleaning fluids and solvent runoffs. 


Volatile Organic Chemicals

Chemical Sources, Description Health Effects
Benzene Gasoline, some foods, drugs, pesticides, paint, plastic industries Cancer group A, leukemia, also damage to blood cell forming tissue, immune and nervous system
Bromobenzene Used in chemical production, gas and motor oil additive Skin irritant, depressant
Bromochloromethan Fire extinguishers, grain, fumigant, chemical manufacturing Exposure to high doses causes disorientation, nausea, eye and throat irritation
Bromomethane Fumigant to kill insects in crops, soils, and buildings, possible dBP Damage to lungs, kidney, liver and nervous system
Carbon tetrachloride Improper disposal of waste from manufacturing of refrigerants & propellants for aerosol sprays, was used as solvent, fumigant Cancer group B, effects nervous system, liver & kidneys
Chlorobenzene (Monochlorobenzene) Waste solvents for metal degreasers, production of pesticides & dyes Nervous system, liver, lung, & kidney damage
Chloroethane Used as a foaming agent in plastic manufacturing, refrigerant, solvent, chemical manufacturing Cancer in laboratory animals, large doses may damage heart, lungs, stomach, & central nervous system
Chloromethane (methyl chloride) Silicones, pesticides, fumigants, fire extinguishers, aerosol propellants, plastics, chlorinated pool water, polystyrene insulation, refrigerant, synthetic rubber, methyl cellulose, solvent Cancer, central nervous system, liver, kidneys
Dichlorobenzene (o) Paints, engine cleaning compounds, chemical wastes Liver, kidney & blood cell damage Liver, kidney & blood cell damage
Dichlorobenzene (p) Room & water deodorants, mothballs, some pesticides, degreasers Cancer group C
Dichlorodifluoromethane (Freon 12) Refrigerant & foaming agent in plastics production Heart, lung, central nervous system damage
Trichloroethane (1,1,1) TCA Organic solvent, pesticides, adhesives, teflon tubing, lacquers, coatings, rubbers, polyesters, fats, oils, waxes, resins, medicine, aerosols, glues Suspected carcinogen
Tetrachloroethane (1,1,2,2) Organic solvent, adhesives, artificial leathers, pearls, silk bleach, cellulose, cement, coal, crystallography, denatured alcohol, fats, fur coats, herbicides, metal cleaning, metal decreasing, moth proofing, oils, paint, paint removers, polyesters Liver, kidneys, central nervous system
Xylene (o) Gasoline additive, paint, rust preservatives, printing, rubber, leather, cleaning agents, airplane fuel, plastic, photography paper, air freshener, fiberglass, adhesives Liver, kidney, nervous system
Trichlorofluoromethane (Fluorotrichlorometh-ane) Refrigerant, pesticides, electrical insulation, cosmetics, perfumes, spray paint, floor waxes, food processing Central nervous system, depressant, Cardiovascular effects
Dichloropropene (cis 1,3) Soil fumigant, pesticides, herbicide, corrosion inhibitor Liver & urinary tract effects, cancer, immune system
Trichloroethane TCE Trichloroethane TCE Industrial solvent, septic tank cleaner Cancer in animals, nervous system, depressant

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Inorganic Chemicals

Chemical Sources, Description Health Effects
Aluminum Present in all natural waters, Alum salts used as coagulants Aluminum is a neurotoxin, link to Alzheimer disease is not confirmed, present in all water regardless of treatment
Antimony Natural deposits, manufacturing, flame retardants, ceramics, glass & pesticides Decreases longevity & growth
Arsenic Natural deposits, smelters, glass, electronic wastes, insecticides, herbicides, especially orchards Cancer group A, skin nervous system
Barium Natural deposits, pigments, epoxy sealants, spent coal, paints, paper, pesticides, processing beets, animal & vegetable oils Circulatory system effects, increased blood pressure, nervous system disorders
Beryllium Electrical, defense, aerospace, nuclear industry, production of ceramics & alloys, natural deposits Bone, lung damage, proven carcinogen in animals, suspected of causing bone cancer in humans, disorders of the respiratory system, heart, liver, spleen
Cadmium Bluish white metal, galvanized pipe corrosion, natural deposits, batteries, paints, stabilizer in PVC pipes Kidney effects, suspected of causing cancer & high blood pressure
Cyanide Electroplating, steel, plastics, mining, fertilizer Thyroid, nervous system damage, spleen, brain & liver effects
Selenium Natural deposits, mining, smelting, coal oil combustion Liver damage

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Syntheic Organic Chemicals

Chemical Sources, Description Health Effects
2,4-D (Dichlorophenoxy-acetic Acid) Runoff from herbicide on wheat, corn, rangelands & lawn herbicides Liver & kidney damage
Adipate Synthetic rubber, food packaging, cosmetics, plastics Decreased body weight, liver & testes damage
Alchlor Runoff from corn, soybeans & other crops Cancer group B
Aldicarb (sulfoxide & sulphone) Insecticide on cotton, potatoes, Widely restricted, found in wells Nervous system effects
Aldicarb Sulfoxide Biodegration of aldicarb Nervous system effects
Aldrin Insecticide, Moderate to persistent Insoluble, slightly volatile Cancer group B2, kidney & liver injuries
Atrazine Runoff from use as herbicide on corn Mammary gland & tumors
Benzo(a)pyrene Burning wood & fossil fuels, coal tar, forest fires Probable carcinogen
Butachlor Herbicide not registered in US, slightly soluble, slightly volatile, non persistent Suspected mutagen
Carbaryl Insecticide, acaricide, mollusicide. Animal flea, lice, tick, mite control, corn, alfalfa, potatoes Suspected carcinogen, teratogen mutagen
Carbofuran Soil fumigant on alfalfa, grains, corn, cotton, grasshoppers, cereal leaf beetle Nervous and reproductive systems
Chlordane Insecticide, soils treated for termites, also in crops as foliar or seed treatment Cancer group B2
Dalapon Herbicide on orchards, beans, coffee, lawns, roads, railways, corn & cotton Liver, kidney damage
Dibromochloropropane (DBCP) Soil fumigant on soybeans, cotton, pineapple orchards Cancer group B2
Dibromoethane 1,2 EDB, Ethylene dibromide Inert ingredients in pesticides, fumigants, gas additives, dyes, pharmaceuticals, resins, waxes, gums, asphalt, vinyl bromide, solvent Suspected human carcinogen
Dicamba Herbicide, non-mod persistence, soluble, slightly volatile, corn forages, grains, broadleaf annual weeds Health effects unknown
Dinoseb Herbicide crop & noncrop applications. Contact soil spray Thyroid, reproductive organ damage
Dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) Chemical production byproduct, impurity in herbicides, pulp & paper mill Cancer group B2
Diquat Runoff of herbicide on land & aquatic weeds, target weeds, foliar, & water surface application Liver, kidney, eye effects
Endothall Herbicide on crops especially potatoes, land aquatic weeds, rapidly degraded herbicide harvesting Liver, kidney, gastrointestinal damage
Endrin Pesticides on insects, rodents, birds, restricted since 1980 Liver, kidney, heart damage, cancer
Heptachlor (including- epoxide Leaching of insecticides for termites, very few crops Cancer group B2
Hexachlorobenzene Pesticide production waste by product Cancer group B2
Hexachlorocyclopenta-diene Pesticide production, intermediate Kidney, stomach damage
Methomyl Insecticide, nematocide, very soluble, slightly volatile, non mod persistence, grains, potatoes Mutagen, anemia, blood damage, liver kidney, spleen, bone marrow damage
Methoxychlor Insecticide on fruits, vegetables, alfalfa, livestock, pets Growth, liver, kidney, nervous system
Metolachlor Herbicide, non persistent, water soluble. Corn, soybeans, potatoes, annual grass weeds Cancer group, testicular atrophy
Metribuzin Herbicide, water soluble. Soybeans, potatoes Liver, kidney damage
Oxamyl (Vydate) Insecticide on apples, potatoes, tomatoes Kidney damage
PCB‚s (polychlorinated biphenols, Arochlor) Coolant oils from electrical transformers Cancer group B2
Pentachlorophenol Wood preservative, herbicide, cooling tower wastes Cancer group B2, liver & kidney effects
Phthalate (bis2ethylhexyl) PVC & other plastics Cancer group C
Picloram Herbicide on broad leaf & woody plants foliar spray on target weeds, surface spray Kidney, liver damage
Propachlor Herbicide, moderate persistence, water soluble, volatile Cataracts
Simazine Herbicide on grass sod, some crops, corn, aquatic algae, broadleaf annual weeds (preemergence) Cancer group C, circulatory system effects
2,4,5 - TP (Silvex) Herbicide on crops, golf courses, injected or sprayed on target plant Liver & kidney damage

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Radiological Chemicals

Chemical Sources, Description Health Effects
Beta / photon emitters (I) and (P) Natural and man made deposits Cancer group A
Alpha (gross) Natural deposits Cancer group A
Radium 226, and 228 (combined) Natural deposits Cancer group A (226 head carcinomas, 228 bone cancer)
Radon Natural deposits Cancer group A, effect of low levels of radon and of consumed (versus inhaled) radon is in dispute, high levels shown to cause lung cancer when inhaled
Uranium Natural deposits Cancer group A, also kidney effects, accumulates in bones


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Chemicals Used to Take Out the Chemical Contaminant

Activated Alumina Removal of inorganic by adsorption
Alum Most common coagulant used in water treatment
Anionic Polymer Coagulant aid
Activated Carbon Used for taste & odor control, absorption of organic chemicals, & other purposes
Calcium Hydroxide Lime Used to increase pH for corrosion control
Calcium Hypo chlorite Chlorine for disinfections
Cationic Polymer Coagulant aid
Caustic (Soda) Used to increase pH for corrosion control
Chloramines Disinfectant, lessens THM production
Chlorine Most common disinfectant & oxidant used in water treatment, includes Chlorine Dioxide Chloramine and Sodium Hypo chlorite
Chlorine Dioxide Disinfectant
Coagulants Includes, Ferric Chloride & Polymers
Copper Sulfate Used to treat surface water to control algae growth
Disinfectant Includes Chlorine (in various forms) & Ozone
Ferric Sulfate Coagulant
Fluoscilicic Acid Fluoridation
Ferric Chloride Coagulant
Fluoride Added to decrease tooth decay, Fluoscilic Acid, Sodium Silica Fluoride & Sodium Fluoride
Lime Used to increase pH & alkalinity for corrosion control may be needed to optimize coagulation
Orthophosphate Corrosion control
Oxidants Includes Chlorine Ozone, Potassium Permanganate Ozone
pH Adjustment For corrosion control, includes Caustic Soda, Soda Ash & Lime
Phosphate Polyphosphates are used for sequestering, Orthophosphates are used for corrosion control
Poly Aluminum Chloride Coagulant
Polymers Coagulant aid
Polyphosphate Used to sequester iron & manganese
Potassium Permanganate An oxidant frequently used in treating iron & manganese
Soda Ash (Sodium) Carbonate) Increases both pH & alkalinity, used for corrosion control, used to optimize coagulation
Sodium Silica Fluoride Fluoridation
Sodium Fluoride Fluoridation
Sodium Hydroxide Caustic soda for corrosion control
Sodium Hypo chlorite Disinfections
Zinc Catalyst which aids in corrosion control when used with phosphates
Zinc Orthophosphate Corrosion control

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